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What is microbiome?

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What is microbiome?

Medically reviewed by:
Dr James Freeman

The surprising science of gut bugs

Microbiome definition: The microbiome is the community of microorganisms (such as fungi, bacteria and viruses) that exists in a particular environment. In humans, the term is often used to describe the microorganisms that live in or on a particular part of the body, such as the skin or gastrointestinal tract.

Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria. These bacteria, known as the microbiome play a crucial role in your overall health.

What is microbiome?

The microbiome is a community of microorganisms that live in and on the human body. The microorganisms living in your body include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. The microbiome plays a vital role in human health, as it helps regulate the immune system, protect against pathogens, and synthesize vitamins and minerals.

The gut microbiome is the largest and most crucial microbiome in the human body. It is estimated that over 100 trillion bacteria live in the gut, which outnumbers human cells by a factor of ten to one! The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health, as it helps to break down food, absorb nutrients, and protect against pathogens.

The composition of the microbiome changes throughout life, starting from birth. Diet, medications, stress, and other factors can also influence the microbiome. For example, antibiotics can kill both good and bad bacteria, while a high-fat diet has been linked to changes in microbiome composition. Research suggests that an imbalance in the microbiome (known as dysbiosis) may be linked to many health conditions, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

The human microbiome is an integral part of our overall health, and there is still much to learn about these fascinating microorganisms.

Microbiome vs. microbiota – what’s the difference?

You may have heard the terms microbiome and microbiota used interchangeably. However, there is a distinction between the two. The microbiome refers to the entire community of microorganisms that live in and on the human body. On the other hand, the microbiota relates specifically to the microorganisms in the gut.

While the microbiome includes the microbiota, other microorganisms live on the skin, the mouth, and other body parts. Therefore, the microbiome is a broader term that refers to all microorganisms that make up our microbiome.

Why does the microbiome matter?

The microbiome plays an integral part in human health.

It helps:

  • regulate the immune system
  • protect against pathogens
  • synthesize vitamins and minerals.

The microbiome also aids in digestion and absorption of nutrients and helps to break down food.

In addition to these essential functions, the microbiome has also been linked to various other health benefits, including improved:

  • mental health
  • reduced inflammation
  • enhanced cognitive function.

While the microbiome is essential for human health, it is necessary to remember that not all microbes are created equal. Some bacteria can cause disease, while others can promote good health. Maintaining a healthy balance of microbes is crucial to support overall health.

The microbiome is a complex and fascinating community of microorganisms. There is still much to learn about these fantastic creatures, but it is clear that they play a vital role in human health. With further research, we may be able to harness the power of the microbiome to improve our health and ward of disease.

How much we learned about microbiome in the last decade

Researchers have only just begun to scratch the microbiome’s surface, but we have already seen tremendous advancements in our understanding of human health. The microbiome is the collection of all microbes living in and on the human body, and it plays a crucial role in everything from digestion to immunity. In recent years, we have seen a surge in microbiome research as experts work to unlock the secrets of this complex ecosystem.

Thanks to this ongoing research, we are beginning to see linkages between the microbiome and various health issues, from obesity to mental illnesses. With each discovery, we get one step closer to unraveling the mysteries of the microbiome and its impact on human health.

Here are five interesting discoveries:

  1. Your gut’s microbiome is shaped in part by the people you live with.
  2. Antibiotics aren’t the only ones that affect the microbiome. Common prescription drugs have some effects too.
  3. While certain bacteria are more susceptible to antibiotics, some are more susceptible to environmental changes.
  4. Some of the most often used probiotic species aren’t found in the human digestive tract.
  5. Diets have an impact on the microbiome in your digestive tract.

Microbiome research has exploded in recent years, thanks to advances in microbiome sequencing technology. This research is helping us understand how our microbiome affects our health and how our diet, lifestyle, medication, and supplement use affect our microbiome.

Although we have gained a great deal of knowledge over the past ten years, there is still more to find out.

Effects of microbiome on health

The microbiome has been linked to various health benefits, including improved mental health, reduced inflammation, and enhanced cognitive function. However, the microbiome is still a relatively new field of study, and there is a broad need to learn about these microorganisms. In the meantime, here are the effects of the microbiome on health

  • Microbiome help to break down food and absorb nutrients.
  • Microbiome produce vitamins and minerals that are essential for human health.
  • Microbiome protect against pathogens.
  • Microbiome helps maintain balance in the human body.
  • Microbiome aids in regulating the immune system, thereby affecting immune regulation and inflammatory response.
  • Microbiome affects the lung’s mucosa affecting immune regulation of the respiratory tract.
  • Microbiome affects bacteria translocation meaning it affects the occurrence of systematic infection through the continuous movement of bacteria.
  • Microbiome has a direct connection with Irritable Bowel Disease. When bad microbes accumulate in the body, the immune system reacts unnaturally. As a matter of fact, this is a contributing factor to autoimmune illnesses, intestinal inflammation, and other life-threatening conditions.
  • Microbiome is linked with cancer. Biological interactions between microbial communities and their hosts have influenced carcinogenesis, tumor formation, and the immune system’s response.

The microbiome is a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms. The microbiome’s composition changes throughout the lifespan and is influenced by various factors, including diet, lifestyle, and medications.

What affects your gut microbiome?

Many different factors can influence the composition of your microbiome. Some of these factors include:

Diet: The foods you eat can directly impact the bacteria that populate your gut. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and fibre promotes the growth of good bacteria, while a diet high in sugar and processed foods can promote the development of bad bacteria.

Lifestyle: Your lifestyle choices can also influence the microbiome. Factors such as stress, sleep, and exercise can all affect the types of bacteria that live in your gut.

Medications: Antibiotics are the most well-known medication that can impact the microbiome. These medications kill both good and bad bacteria, leading to an imbalance in the microbiome.

As you can see, many different factors can influence the microbiome. It is essential to be aware of these factors to maintain a healthy balance of microbes.

How to support a healthy microbiome

There are several things you can do to support a healthy microbiome. Some of these things include:

Eating a nutritious diet: As mentioned above, diet is one of the most critical factors influencing the microbiome. Eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and fibre will promote the growth of good bacteria.

Limiting antibiotics: While antibiotics are necessary at times, they can also kill good bacteria. Therefore, it is essential only to use antibiotics when absolutely necessary.

Exercising: Exercise has numerous benefits for overall health, including supporting a healthy microbiome. Exercise helps to reduce stress and promote good gut health.

Getting enough sleep: Sleep is another vital factor influencing the microbiome. Getting enough sleep helps to reduce stress and promote good gut health.

Staying hydrated: Drinking plenty of water is essential for overall health, and it can also support a healthy microbiome. Water helps flush out bad bacteria and keep the digestive system functioning properly.

By following these tips, you can help to keep your microbiome balanced and healthy.

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